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Sail Cloth Definitions


ASPECT RATIO: The luff length of a sail divided by foot length. High Aspect sails are tall and thin.

BIAS: A diagonal across a piece of fabric at 45-degrees to the warp and fill.

COUNT: The number of yarns per inch in the warp or fill of a cloth.

CREEP: The property of fibers to gradually stretch under a constant load.

CRIMP: Length or waviness added to a yarn when it is woven over-and-under in a piece of fabric. Crimp can contribute to the elongation of a fabric under load.

CROSS-CUT: A panel layout where seams run across the sail, perpendicular to the leech.

DACRON: Dupontís trade name for polyester fiber.

DENIER: A system for coding filament yarns and fibers, with low numbers representing finer sizes and higher numbers representing heavier yarns.

ELONGATION: The difference between the length of a stretched sample and its initial length; expressed in 1/100ths of an inch.

FIBER: Strand of material used to spin into a yarn.

FILL: The yarn or fiber running across the width of the fabric at right angles to the warp.

FLEX-STRENGTH: The ability of a fiber to resist strength loss having been flexed back and forth

GSM: Weight in grams of a square meter of cloth.

HAND: Softness or firmness of a fabric.

KEVLAR: Dupontís trade name for a family of high-strength aramid fibers.

LAMINATE: A layered fabric made by bonding scrims and/or taffetas to one or two plies of film.

LSP: Name for DIAX laminates using Pentex fibers.

MODULUS: The measure of stretch or elasticity of a fabric. High Modulus = low stretch.

PENTEX: Modified polyester with 250% less stretch.

POLYESTER: A strong, reliable and inexpensive fiber ideal for cruising and low-tech racing laminates, and woven sailcloth.

PRIMARY YARN DIRECTION: The orientation (warp or fill) in which a fabric is the most stretch resistant.

RADIAL: A panel layout where seams and panels radiate out from the corners of the sail.

SAILMAKERS (S.M OZ) WEIGHT: Weight of a 36" x 28.5" sample.

SCRIM: Non woven, formed sheet of yarns held together with resin.

SPECTRA: A highly modified polyethylene fiber developed by Allied Corp

TAFFETA: A light woven fabric used on laminates to add durability and abrasion resistance.

The breaking strength of a yarn or fabric stated in force per unit of the cross-sectional area.

TENSILE STRENGTH: The ability of a fiber, yarn or fabric to resist breaking under tension.

THREADLINE: The direction of the yarns.

VECTRAN: LCP fiber made by Hoechst Celanese

WARP: The yarn or fiber running the length of a fabric.

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 Liberty Sail and Canvas Loft, We are independent sail makers.   Custom boat canvas and cleaning.  Custom cruising sails and racing sails.  Serving the Philadelphia, New Jersey Delaware Eastern Pennsylvania,  PA. and all 50 states. USA made in Lansdale, PA .